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乐鱼官网APP|英语干货|英语16种时态整理

本文摘要:一般时态1一般现在时(1)一般现在时表现没有时限的持久存在的行动或状态或现阶段重复发生的行动或状态,常和副词 usually,often,always sometimes,regularly,near occasionally,every year, every week 等连用。

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一般时态1一般现在时(1)一般现在时表现没有时限的持久存在的行动或状态或现阶段重复发生的行动或状态,常和副词 usually,often,always sometimes,regularly,near occasionally,every year, every week 等连用。例如:1)The moon moves round the earth..2)Mr. Smith travels to work by bus every day.(2)在由after,until,before,once,when,even if,in case,as long as,as soon as,the moment 以及 if,unless 等引导的时间状语从句或条件状语从句中,通常用一般现在时取代未来时。

例如:1)I will tell him the news as soon as I see him.2)I will not go to countryside if it rains tomorrow.例如:1)The plane leaves at three sharp.2)The new teachers arrive tomorrow.(4)在由why,what,where,whoever,who,that,as 等引导的从句中,也常用一般现在时取代未来时。例如:2)You’ll probably be in the same train as I am tomorrow.2一般已往时(1)表现已往某一特定时间所发生的、可完成的行动或状态,常与表现确切已往时间的词、短语或从句连用。

例如:We went to the pictures last night and saw a very interesting film.表现已往习惯性行动。例如:1)He always went to class last.2)I used to do my homework in the library.(注意与be used to doing短语的区别)3一般未来时1)表现未来计划举行或期待发生的行动或状态。例如:I shall graduate next year.2)几种替代形式:1)be going to +v在口语中广泛使用,表现准备做或将发生的事情。

例如:I’m going to buy a house when we’ve saved enough money.be to +v表现计划摆设要做的事,具有“须要”的强制性意义。例如:I am to play tennis this afternoon.be about to +v表现即将发生的事情。例如:He was about to start.be due to +v表现预先确定了的事, 肯定发生的事。

例如:The train is due to depart in ten minutes.be on the point/verge of +v – ing 强调即将发生的某种事态。例如:The baby was on the point of crying when her mother finally came home.举行时态1现在举行时(1)表现现在正在举行的行动,常与now,right now,at the mother,for the time being,for the present等连用。

例如:Don’t disturb her. She is reading a newspaper now.表现现阶段经常发生的行动, 常与always,continually,forever,constantly等连用。例如:My father is forever criticizing me.例如:They are leaving for Hong Kong next month.有些动词不能用举行时,这是一类表现“感受,情感,存在,附属”等的动词。如:see,hear,smell,taste,feel,notice,look,appear,(表现感受的词);hate,love,fear,like,want,wish,prefer,refuse,forgive(表现情感的动词);be,exist,remain,stay,obtain(表现存在状态的动词);have,possess,own,contain,belong,consist of,form(表现占有与附属的动词);understand,know,believe,think,doubt,forget,remember(表现思考明白的动词)。可是如果它们词义改变,便也可用举行时态。

例如:1)Tom looks pale. What’s wrong with him?(look 在此为联系动词,意为“显得,看上去”)2)Tom is looking for his books.(look 在此为实义动词,意为“寻找”)2已往举行时已往举行时表现一个已往的行动发生时或发生后,另一个已往的行动正在举行,或表现已往重复的习惯,常与always,continually,constantly等动词连用。例如:1)We were discussing the matter when the headmaster entered.2)Whenever I visited him, he was always writing at the desk.3未来举行时未来举行时主要表现未来某一时刻正在举行的行动,或表现要在未来某一时刻开始,并继续下去的行动。常用来表现礼貌的询问、请求等。

例如:1)This time next day they will be sitting in the cinema.2)What will you be doing at six tomorrow evening?4完成举行时(现在、已往、未来)完成举行时是(现在、已往、未来)完成时的强调形式,将放在完成时态部门讲述。完成时态完成时态通常表现已完成或从事的行动。它可分为:1现在完成时(1)现在完成时用来表现对现在状况仍有影响的,刚刚完成的行动(常与yet,already,just连用),或者已往某一时刻发生的,连续到现在的情况(常与for,since连用)。

例如:1)I have just finished my homework.2)Mary has been ill for three days.(2)常与现在完成时连用的时间状语有:since, for, during, over等引导出的短语;副词already, yet, just, ever, now, before, often, lately, recently等;状语词组this week (morning, month, year), so far, up to now, many times, up to the present等。例如:1)I haven’t been there for five years.2)So far, she hasn’t enjoyed the summer vacation.3)There have been a lot of changes since 1978.(3)完成时态可用在下列结构中:This (That, It) is (was) the first (second…) time +定语从句;This (That, It) is (was) the only (last) + n +定语从句;This (That, It) is (was) +形容词最高级+ n +定语从句。如果主句的谓语动词是一般现在时,从句的谓语动词通常用现在完成时;如果主句谓语动词是一般已往时,从句谓语动词通常用已往完成时。

例如:(1)This is one of the rarest questions that have ever been raised at such a meeting.(2)There was a knock at the door. It was the second time someone had interrupted me that evening.2已往完成时(1)表现已往某时间前已经发生的行动或情况,这个已往的时间可以用by,before等介词短语或一个时间状语从句来表现;或者表现一个行动在另一个已往行动之前已经完成。例如:1)We had just had our breakfast when Tom came in.2)By the end of last year they had turned out 5, 000 bicycles.(2)动词expect, hope, mean, intend, plan, suppose, wish, want, desire等用已往完成时,表现已往的希望、预期、意图或愿望等没有实现。例如:I had meant to take a good holiday this year, but I wasn’t able to get away.另外两种表现“已往想做而未做的事”的表达方式是:was / were + to have done sth,例如:intended (expected, hope, meant, planned, supposed, wished, wanted, desired) + to have done sth,例如:I meant to have told you about it, but I forgot to do so.(3)已往完成时常用于以下牢固句型:1)hardly, scarcely, barely + 已往完成时+ when + 已往时。

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例如:Hardly had I got on the bus when it started to move.no sooner +已往完成时+ than +已往时。例如:No sooner had I gone out than he came to see me.by (the end of ) +已往时间,主句中谓语动词用已往完成时。例如:The experiment had been finished by 4 o’clock yesterday afternoon.3未来完成时未来完成时表现在未来某一时刻将完成或在另一个未来的行动发生之前已经完成的行动;也可以用来表现一种推测。

常与未来完成时连用的时间状语有:by (the time / the end of ) + 表现未来时间的短语和句子;before (the end of ) + 表现未来时间的词语或句子;when, after等加上表现未来行动的句子等。例如:1)By this time tomorrow you will have arrived in Shanghai.3)When we get on the railway station, the train will probably have left.4完成举行时完成举行时是完成时的强调形式,有现在完成举行时,已往完成举行时,未来完成举行时。现在完成举行时表现已往某一时刻之前开始的行动或状态一直延续到已往某一时刻。例如:I have been looking for my lost book for three days, but I still haven’t found it.已往完成举行时表现已往某一时刻之前开始的行动或状态一直延续到已往某一时刻。

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例如:It had been raining cats and dogs for over a week and the downpour had caused landslides in many places.未来完成举行时表现在未来某一时刻之前开始的一个行动或状态一直延续到未来某一时刻。例如:By the time you arrive tonight, she will have been typing for hours.时态一致时态一致是英语四、六级考试的一个重要内容。

通常应由主句谓语的时态决议从句的谓语时态。一般原则是:1当主句谓语使用现在时或未来时,从句的谓语凭据详细情况使用任何时态He says that he lives in Wuhan.We hope that there will be many people at your party today.“There’s a lot of excitement on the street.”“There certainly is. Do you suppose the astronauts have returned?”2当主句谓语使用已往时的时候,从句的谓语必须使用已往规模的时态The teacher wanted to know when we would finish the experiment.3当从句是表现没有时间观点的真理时,从句的谓语应使用一般现在时。例如:The teacher told them since light travels faster than sound, lightning appears to go before thunder.注:在此种情况下,纵然主句谓语用了已往式的种种时态,从句谓语也应用一般现在时。

4从句谓语只能用虚拟语气的情况使用时态一致原则确定从句动词时态时,还应注意,若主语动词是表现下令、请求、要求、建议、劝告等的动词,从句谓语只能用虚拟语气,不能遵循时态一致原则。例如:We insisted that we do it ourselves.动词的语态语态也是动词的一种形式,英语有两种语态:主动语态和被动语态。

主动语态表现主语是行动的执行者,而被动语态表现主语是行动的蒙受者。1)We use electricity to run machines. (主动语态)2)Electricity is used to run machines. (被动语态)1不能用于被动语态的动词和短语2被动语态的时态形式常用的被动语态有表1 所列的几种时态形式。

3短语动词的被动语态短语动词转换为被动语态时,通常被看作是一个动词,后面的介词或副词不能拆开或省略。例如:1)So far no correct conclusion has arrived at.4“get + -ed分词”的被动语态“get + -ed分词”结构强调行动的效果,而非行动自己,常用来表现突发性的,出乎意料的偶然事件。

例如:The boy got hurt on his way home from work.另外,“get + -ed分词”还可用于谈论为自己做的事,是主动的行为而不是被动的行为。例如:get dressed(穿衣服) get divorced(仳离) get engaged(文定) get confused(疑惑不解)get lost(迷路) get washed(洗脸) get married(完婚)5能带两个宾语和复合宾语的动词改为被动语态(1) 能带两个宾语的动词改为被动语态时,一次只能由一个宾语作主语,另一个宾语被保留下来。

例如:1)We showed the visitors our new products.(主动语态)2)The visitors were shown our new products.(被动语态)3)Our new products were shown to the visitors.(被动语态)(2)能带复合宾语的动词改为被动语态时,原来的宾语补足语变为主语补足语。例如:1)The teacher appointed him League secretary.(主动语态)2)He was appointed League secretary.(被动语态)6被动语态与系表结构的区别(1)The novel was well written.(系表结构)(2)The novel was written by Diskens.(被动语态)7少数动词的主动语态有时有被动的意思例1:The book is selling remarkably well.例2:The song sounds very beautiful.能这样用的动词另有read(读起来),clean(擦起来),wash(洗起来),write(写起来)。例3:My watch needs cleaning. (= My watch needs to be cleaned).能像need这样用的动词另有:want, require, deserve, do, owe, bind等。例4:The meat is cooking.例 5:The book written by the professor is printing.。


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